However, comments about family relationships were contributed in "open" qualitative responses made about health and wellbeing. This may include banishment by their spouses or ex-spouses and children due to inability to accept or understand the desire to transition, or situations in which ex-spouses refuse to allow them to have contact with young children. In the final section of this part of the report The New Family Structures Study published in the US in is discussed, given this is the only study to date reporting harms to children raised in same-sex parented families. The children are usually biologically related to at least one of the parents. This indicates that fear of prejudice or discrimination due to parental sexuality may outweigh actual experiences of ill treatment.
It is possible that the differences in the demographic characteristics of lesbian couples compared to heterosexual couples may explain any differences observed between the two groups. It discusses: family formation in Australia; the cultural importance of biological connections; heteropatriarchal gender and parenting roles; the impact of heteronormativity; discriminatory experiences with health care providers; cultural and legal recognition as legitimate parents; the privileging of biological relationships; pathways to parenthood; surrogacy and sperm donation decision making; family dissolution and separation; and the reliance on hetero bionormative ideas during separation. People in same-sex couples are more highly educated and are more likely to be in highly skilled occupations than people in heterosexual couples. Several studies of gay fathers have also noted higher self-esteem Bergman et al. Children of lesbian mothers report less aggressiveness Vanfraussen et al. It also considers what happens after parentage is determined, analysing how judges approach questions of parental responsibility and parenting time in cases where both women are declared legal parents. Australian law now gives legal authority to the notion that children can have two mothers. This article reviews the Senator's evidence and compares it to recent Australian research on same-sex parents and child outcomes. Most school-aged children report they have mainly same-sex best friends and wider friendship networks Golombok et al. It describes their formation, their experiences, and the factors that help them thrive. Even the critics concede it is extremely difficult to use random, representative samples of same-sex families in comparative or other kinds of research. Green , who has interviewed numerous transgender parents over time at a gender reassignment clinic in London, commented that partners of transgender parents may feel such abandonment and hostility towards their ex-partner that they oppose them having any contact with children. In the final section of this part of the report The New Family Structures Study published in the US in is discussed, given this is the only study to date reporting harms to children raised in same-sex parented families. The author himself indeed makes this point Regnerus, , p. Interestingly, however, daughters of lesbian mothers expressed fewer "masculine" occupational aspirations than the daughters of heterosexual parents Bos et al. Australian gay men's pathways to parenthood are diverse, although relatively limited compared to their counterparts in the US. Today we are seeing the first generation of gay couples using surrogacy to achieve parenthood. Over the past 10 years in many Australian states and territories, same-sex couple and parenting relationships have gained considerable legal recognition. In cases where Australian lesbian or gay parents are raising adopted children, it is highly likely these children were adopted in the context of a previous heterosexual relationship due to the legal prohibition on same-sex adoption in Australian states and territories. The findings and views based on these data are those of the authors and should not be attributed to either DSS or the Melbourne Institute. Lesbian, gay or bisexual foster families may contend with discriminatory practices among social workers that mean they are not given due consideration as suitable carers Hicks, ; Riggs, , Rainbow Families Inc. As some other studies that compare children's outcomes in same-sex and heterosexual couples do not adjust for differences in financial resources and education, this finding can be considered particularly important. Historically, many lesbians and gay men have had difficult relationships with or been rejected by their families of origin because of their sexuality Carrington, ; Weeks et al. Many of the participants with so-called "lesbian mothers" or "gay fathers" had not been raised by parents who lived with same-sex partners.
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