Influenza would become a reportable disease early in the second wave of the pandemic, but not until infection was so widespread as to preclude accurate record keeping [ 29 ]. In this case, the pandemic emerged as a result of triple viral reassortment between two influenza lineages that had been circulating in pigs for years [ 93 ]. Within weeks, the disease had spread across 30 countries [ 93 ]. It was first recorded in almost simultaneous outbreaks in Mexico and the United States [ 26 ].
Kenrick , Sara E. In she participated in the Ms. Economic recovery following tapering off of the pandemic was almost immediate. As with more recent pandemics, the outbreak occurred in multiple waves, with higher associated morbidity and mortality in later stages [ 15 , 17 ]. This would have important implications for disease emergence, spread, impact, and surveillance. In , a worldwide network of laboratories was linked to the Influenza Research Center based in London, and investigators from Melbourne to Washington were able to study the strain soon after it emerged [ 64 ]. From Ancient Times to the Machine Age Influenza epidemics and pandemics have been occurring for centuries. In , for example, an epidemic emerged when antigenic drift resulted in changes to the hemagglutinin antigen such that the flu vaccine did not provide any protection against influenza [ 44 ]. After the divorce, they moved to Hong Kong where her mother became a nurse. Within weeks, the disease had spread across 30 countries [ 93 ]. Vaccine allocation in the United States was based upon population size, with priority given to high risk individuals and essential personnel, an allocation strategy commonly employed today [ 61 ]. As with Spanish flu, the mortality curve shifted towards younger age groups, a distinguishing characteristic of influenza pandemics [ 63 ]. It would be almost 40 years before another global influenza pandemic and, when it arrived, countries found themselves much better prepared. In the United Kingdom, for example, an aggressive containment campaign combined school closure and voluntary isolation with antiviral treatment for suspected cases and mass prophylaxis of potential contacts; these interventions helped control the outbreak until more information could be gathered [ ]. However, the total global impact of the pandemic is not well understood [ ]. Karen's father who currently owns many car dealerships in Los Angeles area and her mother, former Miss Korea who owns a successful beauty salon has always been supportive of her modeling and acting career. This was the result of emergency preparedness efforts catalyzed by the earlier SARS outbreak of — and persisting fears surrounding H5N1 avian flu. The beginning of this second age may be traced to the — establishment of the United Nations and three multilateral economic institutions known collectively as the Bretton Woods system: the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [ 55 ]. However, most surveillance is based solely upon patients who seek medical care, thereby excluding asymptomatic or self-limiting infections, underestimating the burden of influenza, and missing important routes of disease transmission [ 83 ]. The major pandemic of the nineteenth century began in the winter of in China [ 12 ]. Nevertheless, it is still not known what the algorithm for finding the perfect match would be. Hospitalization was significantly more likely among the elderly, and occurred at a rate that would be impossible to accommodate today [ 76 ]. Meanwhile, New Zealand soldiers sailing to and from the War in Europe were also infected when they stopped in Freetown on their way; over New Zealanders would die from influenza and pneumonia in just six weeks [ 37 ]. First reported in Hong Kong in July , the virus spread was driven in part by Vietnam War veterans returning to the United States [ 67 , 70 ]. Zierk, and Jacquelyn M. While it has reinforced optimism about pandemic preparedness, it should not necessarily be seen as predictive of future pandemic severity. Low disease severity and mortality rates meant that more costly non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as school closures or quarantines, were unnecessary [ 73 ].
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